The emergence and development of the Marxist-Leninist philosophy is a necessary consequence of the development of scientific thought and the society as a whole. The creation of the philosophy of dialectical and historical materialism was a great scientific achievement. By creating the revolutionary world outlook, the philosophy had produced a truly scientific theory, taught the working class to understand its historic mission, and pointed out real ways for it to eliminate the exploitative society and build socialism.
The emergence of the Marxist philosophy was no accident, but a result of mankind’s progress. Just as the whole of Marxism, the Marxist philosophy could have been elaborated only as a result of the protracted development of the society, of philosophy and the natural and social sciences. The philosophy could be formulated because definite social, natural science and theoretical prerequisites for it had taken shape by that time.
The society’s transition to the road of capitalist development was the general social prerequisite for the emergence of the scientific world outlook. Capitalism had supplanted feudalism in a number of countries, engendering the bourgeoisie and the proletariat as the two main classes of the capitalist system. With the development of capitalism, class relations sharply aggravated. Exploited by the bourgeoisie and deprived of the most elementary human rights, the proletariat was rising up in struggle against the existing order. At first, the proletariat’s class struggle was spontaneous, in the form of sporadic action against individual capitalists. Gradually, however, it became ever more organised and purposeful.
But to carry on a successful struggle as a class in its own right, the proletariat had to have a clear idea of its short-term and ultimate goals, effective ways and means. And that was possible only on the basis of a scientific world outlook. Hence the insistent need for a scientific theory which would enable the proletariat to understand the laws of the society’s development and its revolutionary transformation.
So the development of the working class struggle against capitalist exploitation set a new task before the society and science, the task of formulating a revolutionary theory for the proletariat and all the other working people as an ideological weapon in their struggle for social justice and socialism. Marxism emerged in response to that historical need, with the Marxist philosophy dialectical and historical materialism – as its component part and theoretical basis.
The proletariat’s need for a scientific understanding of the world was a powerful incentive for the development of dialectical and historical materialism. Besides that need, what was also necessary was a certain level of scientific development, convincing facts for a materialist understanding of the world as a whole and social life in particular, and proof of the ceaseless development of nature and the society in accordance with their immanent laws.